For this assignment, you will refer to both 1) the three assigned articles on scholarly writing from this week’s resources and  2) at least three other articles on your chosen topic (which you will locate via the NCU library).  Please note that the NCU library offers assistance for your research needs via email and live help.  See the library home page for details, and don’t hesitate to reach out for help! 
Plan to spend some time on reading this week, as reading scholarly writings at first is neither quick nor easy. You will probably want to read each article more than once to get the hang of this kind of writing. After reading all three articles that you selected from the library, reflect on the process of scholarly writing by answering the following questions:

What did you notice about the writing style overall in the articles you selected?
How did the writing in the academic journal articles compare to writing you might find from other sources, such as books or magazines?
What did you notice about the citations in the articles you selected?
What did you notice about word choice, tone, objectivity, and level of detail in the articles you selected?
Planning for your own future academic publications, what are a few things you will be focusing on as far as your personal scholarly writing skill development as you work through your courses?
Knowing that scholarly writing is an iterative process that requires many drafts, much feedback, and extensive editing and rewriting, how can you best prepare for this challenging process mentally, emotionally, and academically?

Length: 3-4 pages, plus reference list and title page
References: Include a full-reference list and in-text citations for at least six scholarly references.  Three of the references should be the three assigned articles on academic writing and the other three (or more) articles should be the ones on your chosen topic. Be sure to use this first assignment as a way to refresh your use of accurate APA format.
Your assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect graduate-level writing and APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.Vol.:(0123456789)1 3

Early Childhood Education Journal (2021) 49:669–679

“Everyone Can Be a Leader”: Early Childhood Education Leadership
in a Center Serving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children
and Families

Clarisse Halpern1  · Tunde Szecsi2 · Veronika Mak3

Published online: 18 August 2020
© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

The aim of this study was to investigate the conceptualizations and early childhood education (ECE) leadership practices
among teachers and administrators. A case study was conducted at a community ECE center that mainly serves Hispanic and
Haitian immigrant children and families in Southwest Florida. Three administrators and four ECE teachers were interviewed
about their views and experiences with ECE leadership. After aggregating the data into clusters, five themes emerged: (1)
vision-driven leadership, (2) inclusive leadership (3) practice-focused leadership, (4) freedom and ownership vs. close
supervision, and (5) advocacy for ECE. The findings indicated that the participants held a shared vision of collaborative and
inclusive ECE leadership, which was expanded to include culturally and linguistically diverse children and families. Also,
the teachers highlighted a pedagogical leadership style that directly impacted their everyday classroom practices to facilitate
children’s and parents’ leadership experiences. All participants advocated ECE programs in which quality early care and
education are ensured through inclusive leadership. Both teachers’ and administrators’ willingness to invest in leadership
training and practices indicated their commitment towards a shared and democratic leadership model which is a pathway
toward social justice.

Keywords Early childhood education · Leadership · Teachers and administrators · Case study · Immigrant families

The recognition of the long-term impact of early education
on a child’s life has fueled the improvements in early child-
hood pedagogy. Solid early childhood pedagogy must be
nurtured through leadership to create quality early education
and care (Hujala 2019). Educational leadership is a sustaina-
ble model that uses collaboration to generate positive effects
on student achievement and ensures long-lasting outcomes
(Burns 2016; Ferdig 2007; Fullan 2005). Emerging from
business and management theories, leadership studies were
progressively incorporated into educational studies (Hoy
and Miskel 2008; Jacobson and Cypres 2012). Nonetheless,

due to significant differences, corporate leadership theories
seem incompatible with early childhood education (ECE)
practices (Kagan and Hallmark 2001; Mujis et al. 2004).
Corporate leadership caters to large, hierarchical, formal,
and often product-oriented organizations, typically led by
men, whereas ECE leadership tends to be more collaborative
and distributive in smaller and more people-oriented institu-
tions often led by women (Schein 2004). CurrFall 2009 DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Volume 37, Number 3 25

What qualities set effective leaders apart from those who simply manage early childhood
programs? The skills identified here can lead to program excellence!

Principle-Centered Leadership in
Early Childhood Education

Victoria Carr, Lawrence J. Johnson, and Connie Corkwell

One of the most important aspects of any early
childhood setting is the quality of its leadership. Leaders
set the tone and are critical to the development of a
nurturing environment that supports families and staff,
who then encourage children to flourish. A principle-
centered leadership approach is an effective model for early
childhood education (Carr, Johnson, & Corkwell, 2004).

There are profound differences between being a
manager and a leader (Covey, 1991). Managers administer
for stability, have subordinates, adopt clear short-term
objectives, focus on details, and are oriented toward
completing tasks. Leaders administer for change, have
followers, focus on long-term vision, set direction, and are
oriented toward inspiring people to achieve results.

Although leadership skills are far more important to the
success of an early childhood center than are managerial
skills, effective centers have individuals with both sets of
skills. A leader without management skills can have a
dynamic vision with no idea about how to achieve that
vision. A center can be in serious trouble if paperwork and
finances are not appropriately addressed. On the other
hand, a manager without leadership skills will accept the
status quo, create hierarchies, and be reactive to issues
without a clear understanding of where the center needs to
go or how individual efforts fit into the big picture. As a
result, with only a manager, the bottom line can become
more important than the quality of services and the success
of staff, children, and families.

Building on the premise that leadership skills are of
utmost importance with a blend of skills clearly needed,
principle-centered leadership provides a framework for
achieving that blend. As Covey (2004) asserted, leaders
inspire those they supervise to find their own voices. These
voices are critical in early childhood for several reasons.
For example, teachers are leaders within the classroom.
Teachers have the capacity to help children reach their
individual potentials and work with families to promote

Victoria Carr, Ed.D., is Associate Professor, College of
Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services & Director,
Arlitt Child and Family Research and Education Center,
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. Her expertise for
writing this article is grounded in 12 years of service as the
Director of the Arlitt Child and Family Research and Educa-
tion Center at the University of Cincinnati. She is also Execu-
tive Director of Head Start and served in a leadership role for
more than 5 years as the Program Chair for the early child-
hood faculty at the University of CinciVol.:(0123456789)1 3

Early Childhood Education Journal (2022) 50:867–877

A Framework for Promoting Access, Increasing Participation,
and Providing Support in Early Childhood Classrooms

Christan G. Coogle1  · Sloan Storie2 · Naomi L. Rahn3

Accepted: 24 April 2021 / Published online: 25 May 2021
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. 2021

The purpose of this paper is to provide an inclusive framework for supporting all children in early childhood education
classrooms while also considering early learning standards, curricula, and everyday activities and routines. We describe
universal design for learning, multi-tiered systems of support, embedded learning opportunities, and how these practices can
be intertwined to support the early development and learning of all young children. Within universal design for learning we
describe the multi-sensory ways early childhood educators can represent information, engage young learners, and facilitate
expression. Multi-tiered systems of support promote intentional and individualized instructional decision-making guided
by data to support children in attaining target learning objectives. We describe embedded learning opportunities which are
intentional and naturalistic opportunities to work on specific skills throughout daily activities and routines. Sample informal
assessments and additional resources to learn more about each of these practices are included.

Keywords Inclusive education · Early childhood · Universal design for learning · Multi-tiered systems of Supports ·
Embedded instruction


Educating young children within inclusive early childhood
education environments has positive implications for chil-
dren who are typically developing and children with delays
and disabilities, and thus, is a recommended practice by

the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National
Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
(Camilli et al., 2010; DEC/NAEYC, 2009; Holahan & Cos-
tenbader, 2000; Odom et al., 2011; Strain & Bovey, 2011).
Inclusive education promotes the acquisition, maintenance,
and generalization of all children’s skills and facilitates
social acceptance and friendships (Barton & Smith, 2015;
Milam et al., 2020; Odom et al., 2006, 2011; Sainato et al.,
2015; Soukakou, 2012; Strain, 2017; Urlacher et al., 2016;
Winstead et al., 2019). In addition, programs that embrace
inclusive practices demonstrate enhanced quality, and are
less costly (Buysse et al., 1999; Odom et al., 2001a, 2001b).

DEC and NAEYC define inclusion as, “…the values, pol-
icies, and practices that support the right of every infant and
young child and his or her family, regardless of ability, to
participate in a broad range of activities and contexts as full
members of families, communities, and society…” (DEC/
NAEYC, 2009). Inclusive early childhood education occurs
when educators provide accesMarilyn W. Edmunds
Julee Waldrop

What is Scholarly Writing?

s a journal, one of our goals is to help authors publish meaningful and
relevant clinical content for nurse practitioners (NPs). Through external

Aaudits of our journal, we know that JNP: the Journal for Nurse Practitioners

has a reputation for accuracy in the work we publish and that readers feel they
can depend upon what is published. This is an important reputation to keep

We often have reviewers who tell authors in their reviews that their writing
needs to be more scholarly. These authors in turn come back to the editors to
ask, “What does that mean?”

Scholarly writing is the type of writing that NPs should learn in their
graduate-level professional and research courses. Those who are credentialed
as PhD or DNP are expected to have a clear and concise written commu-
nication style. There is a big focus in nursing on critical thinking. Scholarly
communication is a step beyond critical thinking—it is really critical

Prospective authors can consult online programs or texts in order to clearly
communicate in writing professional manuscripts. None of these programs will
likely tell someone anything they haven’t heard before, which may mean that the
author has not mastered things that she or he should know.

Simple but essential scholarly writing rules include:
1. Write a clear, concise statement about what new information the article

presents. This means the author must have a clear understanding about
who readers will be. Unique information, particularly on a topic for
which there has been a good deal published already, may justify why the
article should be published.

2. Begin every paragraph with a simple and direct topical statement.
Follow this with 2-4 sentences that elaborate, support, or provide
examples about the topical statement.

3. Keep sentences simple and relatively short; use an active voice.
4. To create a scholarly tone, use third-person pronouns and avoid

informal terms, slang, controversial or biased words, and contractions.
5. Avoid repetition and meaningless statements or sentences where the

content is obvious.
As a scholarly author you are expected to read the literature and to study and

think about it before you begin to write. The author should not sit at the
computer and copy directly from other publications to create a “new” paper. She
or he must develop a logical plan for the order in which arguments are advanced,
analyze and evaluate the literature, and use references in the discussion of
these arguments.

The correct use of references is an essential component of scholarly writing.
Particularly in clinical journals, readers want to see the best and most recent
references. An article that includes many references older than 5 years casts doubt
on the relevance or credibility of the content.
The Journal for Nurse Practitioners – JNP The Peer-Review Process in Scholarly


All writers who submit to peer-reviewed journals w ill have their manuscript reviewed. This discussion paper

examines some o f the reasons w hy peer review exists and provides com m ent on the process. It is helpful to

understand w hy this process exists and be aware of some o f the issues th a t have been reported over tim e in

relation to editorial peer review. This paper seeks to do this and pose a few questions for reflection.
KEYW ORDS: peer review; process; discussion

A C A D E M IC J O U R N A L S A R E a key tool for the
dissemination of research results, sharing

viewpoints and opinions and general professional
communication (Campanario, 1998). Anyone
who has submitted articles to academic journals
will have had their manuscript reviewed and will
have received a range of comments as a result of
the peer-review process. The peer-review process
is a part of the quality control measures for most
professional journals. Anecdotally, it seems there
are cifferences in the content of the reviews
received from different scholarly journals. This
prompted a quest to examine the issue of peer
review. What follows is the outcome of a brief
literature review and some reflection.

In order to get a range of articles for review, the
terms ‘peer review’, ‘scholarly writing’, ‘academic
journal’ and ‘editorial peer review’ used the
Android© app Google Scholar. There were over
30,000 citations. The first 1,000 were screened,
and, from these, a list o f 200 were chosen for

Peer review is the review of actions, plans and
research and is one of the quality measures
that a profession uses to ensure the integrity
of images and knowledge related to that pro­
fession. Put another way, if a sample of knowl­
edgeable peers within the profession come to
general agreement that whatever it is that is
being reviewed is not fraudulent, illegal, unsafe,
ill-conceived, unethical or misrepresents the
knowledge of the particular profession, then it
should pass inspection. Quite simply, it limits
risks (Price, 2014).

Peer review is a process that is used in other
ways, not just in editorial review. Peer review
has been used to determine allocation of re­
search funding and academic scholarships and
to gauge consensus around strategic academic
or judicial appointments. Peer review in nursing
includes evaluating aspects o f professional nurs­
ing practice for opportunities to improve care
and is done by people who have the appropriate
knowledge and experience to perform such an
evaluation (Spiva, Jarrell, &Baio, 2014).

Whitireia Nursing and Health lournal 23/2016 Pages 55-60 55

Brent Dondiff

There exists no specific timeline of the in­
troduction of editorial peer review (Burnham,
1990). However, the first medical periodical pub­
lished in America and recorded in the examined

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